Monday, March 23, 2020

Seminole Patchwork Essays - Textile Arts, Sewing, Visual Arts

Seminole Patchwork ?Cross? or ?sacred fire?, ?arrow?, ?zigzag?, ?bird?, ?wave?, ?mountains? and ?diamondback rattlesnake? all have something in common. What do all of these names have in common? They are all names of Seminole patchwork designs. What exactly is patchworking? It can be defined as the process of sewing pieces of solid colored cloth together to make long rows of designs, which are then joined horizontally to other bands of cloth to form a garment (Downs, 1995, 88). This Native American artwork is closely associated with the Florida Seminoles. The history of this tribe and how they came to make patchwork garments is rather interesting. In making patchwork garments, things to be considered include how it is done (process), what elements of design are used, whom the garment is to be made for and who actually makes it. Presently, there are less artists in this craft and the future of patchwork may be at risk. Seminole patchwork has been done for over a century, and it's beauty and uniqueness n eeds to be revealed and recognized by Americans. The Seminole Indians were not always located in Florida. In the early 19th Century the Seminoles lived in the cool areas of Georgia. They wore animals hides and furs to keep warm. This all changed in 1830, when President Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal Policy of 1830, which forced the Seminoles to flee to Florida. In fleeing to Florida they left behind their homes, some relatives who refused to leave and their cool climate. In Florida, there was no longer a need for the warm furs and hides and they turned to the use of cloth. In 1840, they disappeared into the Everglades and lived there in peace, with no influences from other tribes. The Everglades were rich with exotic items that were worth a lot in trade markets. Once a year, the Seminoles would take a voyage on the Miami River to Miami. In Miami they could trade items such as alligator hides and egret plumes for rolls of cotton cloth. The Seminoles would use the cotton to make various pieces of clothing. One year, a voyag e could not be made to Miami to attain more cloth and the Seminoles were forced to use scraps of cloth, sewing them together to make a large piece of cloth or garment. These scrapped together garments were then called ?Taweekaache?, better known as patchwork. (Westermark ?Many Bad Horses) These patchwork garments brought tourists to the lush, tropical setting of the Everglade area. Tourists flocked to see the Seminole Indians and to buy their patchwork pieces. The process of making these garments was rather slow and somewhat complicated (Blackard and West, Downs, 1995, 85). A Seminole patchwork requires the maker to take/cut many pieces of clothe and then sew them together. The process of sewing, cutting, sewing and so on results in the making of complex geometric designs. There is a six-step process that illustrates how patchwork is done. This process is that of Nea Dodson, a modern day patchwork artist. The pattern is very simple, but is one that is good to get your feet wet in patchmaking. This process is the same used by the original Seminoles. 1.) Cut scraps into equal sized squares, making sure to be accurate. 2.) Next, cut a neutral fabric into long strips, which are as wide as the scrap squares. 3.) Sew the scrap squares between two strips of neutral fabric, like this. 4.) Cut strips apart so you now have a rectangle made of three squares: a square of neutral, a scrap square and another square of neutral. It is important that the edges are straight and the two neutral sides are even. 5.) Shift one rectangle down so that the top edge of the uppermost neutral square on the right is even with the top edge of the scrap square on the left. Sew the rectangles together. Keep adding rectangles in this manner. You will get a strip that looks like this. 6.) Keep adding rectangles until you have a strip as long as you want. Turn the strip so that the scrap squares are all on point (standing on one corner). Trim the upper and lower corners off the neutral squares (see

Friday, March 6, 2020

WWI and WWII essays

WWI and WWII essays I am sure that everyone can agree that war is a terrible thing. Even so, wars are very complex and interesting. There are many facets that one can explore about wars. For instance, one is the similarities and differences of the causes of World War I and World War II.. Another interesting thing to talk about when you think of wars would be all the different countries involved, belligerent or peaceful. Probably the final thing that you should compare and contrast would be how each of the wars ended. There was one major event that primarily led to the start of WWI. This event was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the nephew of the current Emperor of the Austrian empire and therefore was heir to the throne. The archduke and his wife were shot and killed by Gavrilo Princip in the middle of a parade, who was a member of the Black Hand. The Black Hand was an organization whose goal was to unite all Serbs under one government. As a result of the assassinations, on July 28th the Austria-Hungary empire declared against Serbia. One by one, countries were pulled in due to the alliance system. There were also many reasons that led to the beginning of WWII. A few of these reasons were the Great Depression, the rise of nationalism, and the emergence of leaders such as Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The main reason war broke out in Europe was that on September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland. The war for the United States didnt begin until Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. So, I think that it is easy to say that there were many more reasons for the start of WWII than for WWI. Many countries were involved in both of these hellish wars. Most of the countries that took part in WWI were also in WWII. There were two powers in WWI. The first power was called the Central Powers which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. The other power was called the Alli...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Raise interactive scenario Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Raise interactive scenario - Essay Example In Tanzania in the areas of Mererani, children are subjected to deplorable conditions of mining, while they ought to be in schools or other places. A child is supposed to go through childhood and enjoy the happenings that happen in that stage. It does not help matters that poverty and the rare of occurrence of gem could be coincidental in Mererani (Sanga, 2007). Thus, the children in this place are subjected to work at that early stage and point in their life. It beats logic to note that as much as this place and area is a lucrative zone of close to thirty million dollars, a sizeable proportion of the population still live under poverty. It is needless to stress that the children who work in this sites also constitute part of the poor population (Goodman & Barnes, 2011). Thus, it would be more beneficial to them and the future of the society if they were involved in other alternative activities such as pursuing education. Subsequently, the risk and the deplorable work conditions in the mines do not make matters any easy for the children. Firstly, the children do not have any skill or expertise on how to act or behave when they are down deep in the mines (Schroeder, 2010). Thus, they are exposed to dangers of losing the prospects of a better life ahead of them, if they do not succumb to the dangers of the mines. Conclusively, there are other options that could be pursued to relieve these children off their predicament as articulated above. Sanga, S. P. (2007). The Role of Poor Governance in the Tanzanite-Al Qaeda Link Controversy, and Policy Options for Tanzania Enabling it to Escape from ‘Curses’ in the Mining Industry. One Society Institute.[Online] Available at: www. policy. hu/document/200808/sebastian. sanga. pdf&letoltes,

Monday, February 3, 2020

Position paper over why marijuana should be legalized for recreational Essay

Position paper over why marijuana should be legalized for recreational use - Essay Example This comparison significantly influence public perception on the issue. In analyzing the arguments on for and against marijuana, supporting the legalization of marijuana has more benefits to the society than its negative effects. Consequently, marijuana should be legalized for recreational use. Most criticism on marijuana are based on the medical impact on the user. Similar to most drugs, marijuana has side effects. However, the side effects of the drug can be easily addressed. In comparison to legal and most abused drugs in the United States, marijuana poses the less significant health risks. In an argument by Brewer the health risks associated to cigarettes and alcohol cannot be compared to that of marijuana (1). For instance, numerous studies have shown the cancerous effects of tobacco. Apart from studies, it is proven that cigarette use is a major cause of cancer. This is dissimilar to marijuana. The drug still has zero proven cases reported as a cause of cancer. Still on cigarettes, tobacco is highly addictive compared to marijuana. Rampant users have difficulty in refraining from its use. On the other hand, marijuana addiction are rare as users easily cope with absence. Comparing the two drugs, Brewer is of the assumption that tobacco is hugely dangerous to human hea lth than tobacco (1). The author further asserts that tobacco has been a cause of death of 500,000 people annually in the United States (Brewer 1). From this provisions, one may assert that is cigarette is a legal drug, marijuana should also be legal. The argument is based on the adverse effects of tobacco on human health as compared to tobacco. The same comparison could be made on the effects of alcohol. As reported by the CDC, 25,000 deaths caused by alcohol overdose were reported in 201 (Brewer 1). In addition, 16,000 liver disease deaths were contributed to alcohol abuse (Brewer 1). These statistics display the impact of the health hazards associated with alcohol abuse. The same

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Impact Of Louis Vuitton On International Business

Impact Of Louis Vuitton On International Business International Business, due to significant features of its international context, was empowered by global competition which focused on both national and world economic development. Decision was the foremost approaches to be think of in the entry and retention of the business once entrepreneurs figured to denote the business in the international scene. Hence, strategies for the future of the business were influenced by the core managerial skills of the persons in-charged in integrating the core issues in the company. Company existed due to its aim and it should be retained utilizing the specific objectives that the company bounded to assure along the way of the operations. Since there was a competition scheme in all areas of business industry worldwide, success relied to planning, coordination, control and monitoring. Strategies used in the company should not be limited only to the concept of local industry. To assure the success in the company, the management should also revise the strategies which only fitted to local industry but to the international scene also. Every business was challenged by conflicts either internal or external. Some of the features of the conflicts for international marketing were the cultures, norms and national policies which the chosen country where the business will be reestablished had. In this regards, the company should used parameters in generating fast entry to the international business. It should seem like passing new era that the business was starting anew. Decisions should focus on the four core areas. These areas included the marketing programs, operations, organizational and financial viability. Thus, decisions are done massively to incorporate the changes on ways to be adjusted on the new environment. Style of management in the international business is an open-ended sequence of decisive powers. Managers should be open to development empowering the organization with new technologies, complex challenges and reflection to more precise processes. It should be ended with predefined objectives of setting new values to integrate, beliefs to reinforce and attitudes to work out. The leadership style in this should be incorporated with the principles of having a purpose, structure, relationship, rewards and other mechanisms of progress. Specifics of  financial planning  is determined by the following problems: volatility in exchange rates, revaluation of currencies, particularly the national taxation, possible difficulties with the export of funds from abroad, problems with in-house transfer pricing, problems in terms of estimating performance of foreign subsidiaries, etc. Hence to highly intensify the key understanding in the international business, this study was made to ensure that context of international business was raised for better understanding of the readers. Thus, the researcher presented the status of Louis Vuitton in the international scene. This photo was a screenshot of one of the Louis Vuitton Channel Distributor. Historical Background of Louis VuittonLouis Vuitton becomes a partner of Damat Louis Vuitton was established in 1854 with massive designs of bags which introduced other forms of luggage made from canvas. The LV logo patterned with the canvass with knowledge notifying the prestige and wealth during the 19th century. The business began its career from the first designs which was similarly to flat-bottom trunks with Trianon canvas. The business altered the designs from Trianon to beige and brown designs. This was done not to be imitated and to avoid redundant designs. The successor of Louis Vuitton continued the business after his death on 1892. In 1893, it entered the U.S market and, in 1896, the company launched its signature Monogram Canvas and secured worldwide patents for it. It has since become the classic symbol of the Louis Vuitton brand. Under new management, Georges Vuitton altered some of the company policies and heightened the operations through new designs using monogram-canvas design. During the new millennium, Louis Vuitton celebrated its 150th founding anniversary. Impact of Louis Vuitton on International Business Louis Vuitton has great impact on the economic environment aspect of the country. Louis Vuitton was known to be producers of luxurious, socialite and expensive products that elite class citizens used to dreamt of having one of the items provided by the company. Most of the celebrity and public figures worldwide often denote their current status in the wealthy class through exposing their collections of Louis Vuitton products. Thus, the company claimed their popularity in the international market. It can be observed that Louis Vuitton had massive impact to the international business industry. One observable impact of Louis Vuitton is on the economic aspect, for those developed countries there is the fast approach of the economic growth of their country. Some of the researchers viewed Louis Vuitton as a linkage to communication, access to resources, and diverse ways of thinking. Viewing it as a student, I would have to say that Louis Vuitton is two-faced. While it has provided access to employment, it has also encouraged exploitation of labor. While it has opened the door to opportunities in other countries, it has also encouraged exporting of our human resources. While it has invited international communication, it also becomes apparent that this kind of communication benefits only those who have access. I have yet to continue examining the impact of Louis Vuitton on the life of other country. This figure shows the SWOT Analysis of Louis Vuitton in the International Market. While Louis Vuitton offers a world of possibilities, it also opens issues that relate to social justice, particularly to those who are not advantaged by the system. Hence, people must be shed with light on this matter for further knowledge and opinion. If you think about it and look around problems of Louis Vuitton in other country, you will notice that one of the main reasons there were less possibilities of improvement is because of the weakness of laws. Just as politics is ruled by personality so too are laws, courts and regulatory bodies fall before this. There are studies after studies confirming this weakness, and it has nothing whatsoever to do with Louis Vuitton, and everything to do with political and legal culture. And still, we might think that Louis Vuitton has a dramatic acceleration in the empowerment of territorial shifts. Structure of Louis Vuitton in International Business Before expanding into a foreign market, careful consideration must be made regarding type of business entity with which the firm will enter that market.  Each organization type has specific strengths and weaknesses that should be carefully weighed according to the business and legal climate of the country we are entering and our business strategy.   The three types of business organizations were used by Louis Vuitton in their entry to the international scene: Louis Vuitton utilized the joint venture to partner with other business in different countries. Most of the country prohibited the foreign company to operate to their country unless being partnered with local business in the said countries. This was one of the strategic decisions that Louis Vuitton incorporated in order to select the more capable and competent business in the country where they prefer to sell their products. Louis Vuitton becomes a partner of Damat This was a joint venture of Louis Vuitton and Damat from Orka Group company in Turket for the operation of the company in the Turkish Region. A joint venture of Louis Vuitton with Damat in the Turkey would allow the business to enter that foreign market of Turkey capitalizing on the pre-existing business reputation of that Damat.  In addition to deferring part of the risk involved, Louis Vuittons market entry allowed minimal entry costs as the Damats pre-existing presence can be exploited.  The customer base, reputation and distribution network of Damat allowed Louis Vuittons rapid market penetration with a minimum of supply chain and marketing problems.  Additionally, partnership of Louis Vuitton and Damat accessed to suppliers and local financing easing potential problems associated with a foreign business operating in Turkey. Thus, the two make the contracts verifying the risks and sharing of loss and profit through the generation of business concerns like profitability, ethics, and situations that could potentially lead to litigation.   The second pre-operation of Louis Vuitton in the international market was through channel of distribution. Typically, the distributor is responsible for carrying inventory for the market and is the local service provider for warranty claims.  As far as the buyer is concerned, the distributor is the face behind our products. Seemingly in the Philippines, Michelle Trading Company was the chosen distributor of Louis Vuitton. Through the license of the Michelle Trading Company in the Philippines, the said company acquired sample products of Louis Vuitton and resold the products to the residents in the Philippines who craved to have Louis Vuitton products. The buyers would no longer travel abroad to buy the expensive product plus allocated cost of transportation but instead, the products came available through the channel distributors. This type of relationship allows market entry with yet lower entry costs, and offers the added benefit of deferring direct costs of doing business in the foreign country to the distributor.  As a result, start up costs are nearly non-existent; the distributors existing business operations are used exclusively.  Because of this, this arrangement allows immediate market penetration. The last operational transaction of the Louis Vuitton to have successful entry to the international business was through the wholly-owned subsidiary. Louis Vuitton had many subsidiaries in different countries in North America and across Asia. The manner of organization of the new business entity would be determined by the needs of Louis Vuitton and the laws and regulations of the foreign country. As explained, a wholly-owned subsidiary presents the best option for greatest control over market entry.  It also allows for greater profitability as profits will not be disbursed between business partners or consumed by a distributor.  Our firm will have direct contact with customers, the distribution chain, creditors and the local industry. As a result, this presents the best opportunity for long term growth in the foreign country and will allow for easier future expansion in the region. Each form of business structure has strengths and weaknesses which empowered the Louis Vuitton operation very visible to public and a success in their orientated operations. In deciding which structure to utilize in entering a foreign market, careful consideration should be made regarding both our firms strategy and the legal risks and ramifications associated with that strategy.  It is imperative that competent, experienced legal counsel be consulted to examine that strategy prior to committing to any action. Findings An evaluation of the companys internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats served as the foundation for this strategic analysis and marketing plan. The plan focuses on the companys growth strategy, suggesting ways in which it can build on existing customer relationships, and on the development of new products and/or services targeted to specific customer niches. International Business should establish an objective to achieve cumulative growth in net profit. To accomplish its marketing objectives, International Business should develop benchmarks to measure progress. Regular reviews of these objectives will provide feedback and possible corrective actions on a timely basis. The major marketing objective is to gain a better understanding of the needs and satisfaction of current customers. Since International Business is benefiting from reorder rate, it must be satisfying its current customers. International Business could use the knowledge of its successes with current clients to market to new customers. To capitalize on its success with current clients, benchmarks should be established to learn how International Business can improve the products it now offers through knowledge of its clients needs and specific opportunities for new product offerings. These benchmarks should be determined through marketing research and International Business ma rketing information system. Another objective should be to analyze the billing cycle International Business now uses to determine if there are ways to bill accounts receivable in a more evenly distributed manner throughout the year. Alternatively, repeat customers might be willing to place orders at off-peak cycles in return for discounts or added customer services. International Business also should create new products that can utilize its current equipment, technology, and knowledge base. It should conduct simple research and analyses of similar products or product lines with an eye toward developing specialty advertising products that are software based but not necessarily calendar related. This study is focused on gaining knowledge of reality through the study of social construction of International Business which gives us an interpretive and explorative view of the interaction and relationship among dynamic capability, continuous innovation, and entrepreneurship. For a complete view of the interrelationship of these three components, we have selected case organizations of a similar size and operating in the same industry to be able to clearly contrast their organizational capabilities and the linked innovative results. Business innovation is facilitated by the leaders foresights and insights of the business opportunities as well as the internal and external resources. The dynamic capabilities in the model enable entrepreneurship and foster the process of innovation. The arrows indicate that any of the three components in the model are interlinked. Through the cyclical processes of entrepreneurship, dynamic capabilities and innovation, entrepreneurs can accumulate their capabilities to further capture opportunities and generate innovation continuously. Apart from the data gathered from annual reports and published articles on the companies, interviews were also conducted with business managers of the companies. Several interview guidelines were developed for the interview, such as what is the most critical challenge the company faces in the textile industry? How does the company decide its expansion strategy? What are the most distinctive features in companys management of human resources, products and external resources? How does company facilitate organization learning and how does company manage knowledge? What is the relationship between companys decision making process and leadership? How does company manage its brand and innovation? How does company capture innovation and new investment opportunities? The interview data were transcribed and consolidated with secondary data into analysis tables. Iterative verifications and finding analysis were performed until several key points were developed. In order to accept that the role of entrepreneurship has increasingly important role in corporate innovation, it becomes critical to identify the abilities which enable entrepreneurs to facilitate innovation. Dynamic capabilities create strategic advantages by integrating and recombining the external and internal resources. The capabilities of managing resources affect the performance that they can reduce costs and improve product/service quality to fit the firms strategy and technology to accomplish the task of continuous innovation. Concluding Statements International businesses  face some serious challenges issues and solutions about what products or services should be attractive for various foreign markets, possible problems with the transfer of currency, the uncertainties associated with predicting the costs and profitability, creating significant management problems, the impact of different cultures, the complexity of choosing the optimal structure for international business, taxation and pricing, high political risks, etc. Series of development varies the effects of the structure, technology and people in the socio-technical system in such organization. It always depends on the existence of such organizations deriving change due to environments, kinds of people working and the community for acceptance. Along with the structure, skills and abilities of the particular hired in the organizational structure will affect the decisions about what the organization can do and how it will be done. For the technology, its effect is seen from the analysis of the rapid influx in modernization and how it dominate the social standards of the organization varying from the kind of processes integrated in the organization whether it is continuous, large scale or small scale. For the people, such participation is regarded with the control of the people governing and hired by the organization. People in this sense are also reflected as the receivers of the purpose of organizations. Their perception and acceptance is highl y needed in the changes in the quality of life, workplace and in uplifting the socio-economic status of the organization.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Neoclassicism vs Romanticism

Neoclassicism & Romanticism (17809181 Neoclassicism, sass: Neoclassical pieces generally portrayed Roman history; they elevated Roman heroes. During the sass was an Age of Reason and through its history paintings, its works were modes for conveying the Enlightenment ideals. Many of the pieces, like the Oath of the Horntail, are reactions to the revolutions of their time. This piece is a call to arms, which shows that man is great and can be in control.Pieces during the Neoclassical time show a heightened contemplative moment like the one in this piece. Characteristics: -brought back and depicted Roman history formal composition -the use of diagonals shows the apex of emotion/moment (versus a regular moment) – local color -overall lighting -classic ego-structure -completed canvas Romanticism, sass-sass: Unlike Neoclassicism, Romanticism was during the Age of Passion; there was no time for contemplation, so pieces generally showed emotional extremes.Romanticism is a reaction to the classical, contemplative nature of Neoclassical pieces. Romanticism celebrated the elemental forces of nature, depicting nature as out of control. When the uncontrollable nature is compared to life, it makes people think life should be uncontrollable; life should be continuously on the edge. Shows the height of action -emotional extremes -celebrated nature as out of control -dramatic compositions -heightened sensation (life and death moments) Works: Neoclassicism in France: Ad ©l ¤did Labile-Guard, Self-portrait with Two Pupils, 1785 Jacques Louis-David, Oath of the Horntail, 1784-1785 Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Her Treasures, 1785 Romanticism: Antoine-Jean Gross, Napoleon in the Plague House at Gaff, 1804 Jean-Augusta Dominique Ingress, Large Odalisque, 1814 Ad ©l ¤did Labile-Guard, Self-portrait with Two Pupils, 1785, Oil on Canvas pastel colors, delicately curving forms, dainty figures and a light-hearted mood – French portrait pai nting before the French Revolution of 1789, like this piece, may be characterized as a modified form of Rococo; elegant informality continued to be featured, but new themes were introduced, figures tended to be larger and more robust and compositional arrangements were more stable -Labile-Guard was elected to one of the four places in the French Academy available to women and later successfully petitioned to end the restriction on women -this work is often seen as a orphanage piece that argues for the place of women in the Academy -the monumental image of the artist at her easel was meant to eradicate any rumors that men painted her works and the works of other female artists; for example, in a role reversal, the only male in her work is her muse – her father, whose bust is behind her -the self-portrait flatters the painter's conventional feminine charms in a manner generally consistent with the Rococo tradition; she has a more monumental female type, in keeping with her conc eption of women as important contributors to national fife, which is an Enlightenment aspiration; the triangular arrangement of the figures adds to this effect -the work also shows a rich palette and fine detail -the artist's fashionable dress asserts her femininity; the presence of her pupils and the statue of the Vestal Virgin in the background emphasize the feminist mood (and show that women can and should be teachers) – in ancient Rome, the Vestal virgins were the holy priestesses of Vests, the goddess of the hearth; their primary task was to maintain the sacred fire of Vests – the Vestal duty brought great honor and afforded greater privileges to women who served in that role Jacques Louis-David, Oath of the Horntail, 1784-1785, Oil on Canvas -royal commission -reflects the taste and values of Louis XVI who was sympathetic to the Enlightenment -following Doter's lead, the king believed art should improve public morals -the painting was inspired by the seventeenth century drama Horace – Roman history = Rome v.Alba (sons of Horace fight for Rome) -in the painting, the Horntail (three sons of Horace) are shown with their father, pledging an oath to the State -in contrast to the upright muscular angularity of the men is a group of limp weeping women and righted children – sad due to probability of death, but also because of the women's involvement with the enemy (through marriage, etc) women = weak -the composition effectively contrasts the men's stoic willingness to sacrifice themselves for the State with the women's emotional commitment to family ties -composition is a classical pyramid (geometric/structural – divided into three compartments) -David wants the revolution – call to arms -painting extols antique virtues of stoicism -vanishing point at the sword – symbolic -goes back to Roman history with morality tales everything adds up to the â€Å"thesis† – standing up for your beliefs (moral co urage) – women = the counterargument; looking for a Just government -during the Age of Reason, the world could be known through study and a painter could paint a rational painting that could change the world -areas of local color draw the viewer across the canvas Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Her Treasures, 1785, Oil on Canvas -for an English patron -Neoclassical history painting, subjects drawn from classical antiquity (Age of Reason, contemplation) -the story takes place in the second century BCC, during theRepublican era of Rome (Roman history) -a woman visitor has been showing Cornelia her Jewels and then requests to see those of her hostess; Cornelia turns to her sons and says that these are her most precious Jewels -Cornelia exemplifies the â€Å"good mother† (popular subject in late eighteenth century) -in the reforming spirit of the Enlightenment – depicted subjects that would teach lessons in virtue (didactic paintings) -the v alue of Carnelian's maternal education is emphasized by the fact that under her loving care the sons grew up to be political reformers -setting = simple like the message), but the effect of the whole is softened by the warm, subdued lighting and by the tranquil grace of the leading characters Antoine-Jean Gross, Napoleon in the Plague House at Gaff, 1804, Oil on Canvas – chronicled Napoleon's military campaigns -added Romantic elements: dramatic lighting, emotionally stimulating elements, main action is meant to incite veneration, not republican virtue – at the center of a small group of soldiers and a doctor, Napoleon calmly reaches toward the sores of one of the victims, the image of a Christ-like figure healing the sick with his touch, unconsciously intended to promote him as semi-divine (Gross paints the gore = Romantic) -idealized account of an actual incident: During Napoleon's campaign against the Turks in 1799, bubonic plague broke out among his troops.Napoleon decided to quiet the fears of the healthy by visiting the sick and dying, who were housed in a converted mosque -shallow stage and a series of arcades behind the main actors are inspired by Davit's Oath of the Horntail Jean-Augusta Dominique Ingress, Large Odalisque, 1814, Oil on Canvas -odalisque: a female slave or concubine in a sultan's harem (sexual fantasy – repressed) -body urine away from the master's gaze makes her erotic and aloof -the cool blues of the couch and the curtain at the right heighten the effect of the woman's warm skin, while the tight angularity of the crumpled sheets accentuates the languid, sensual contours of her form -fluid line/elegant postures = Neoclassical -Romantic themes = odalisque in a highly personal fashion, her body is not anatomically correct, but is aesthetically pleasing -fascination with the exotic – exploration – French discover exotic near East during Napoleon's campaigns – commissioned by the Queen of Naples - concerned with the line, not remaining true to form

Friday, January 10, 2020

Ancient Commerce in China Essay

1- The route The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is the most famous and important historically trading route of ancient Chinese civilization. This historical network of interlinking, with more than 4000 miles, between East, South, Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa began to be used under the Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220). Originally, the Chinese trade silk occurred internally within the empire, but the caravans were often attacked by central Asian tribes, hoping to find some valuable commodities. In order to protect these caravans, the Han Dynasty extended its military defenses further into Central Asia. Later came the idea to expand the silk trade to central Asia. Silk Road extension: The land routes are red, and the water routes are blue Source: 2- Name and Purpose The Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade that was the major reason to sustain the route for so wide area. Some scholars prefer the term â€Å"Silk Routes† because of the several network of routes existed there. Trading silk was not the only purpose of the Silk Road, many other commodities were also traded. In addition to silk the route carried other precious goods like gold and other precious metals, ivory, precious stones and glass, exotic animals and plants were trade as well. Indeed the silk was the most remarkable goods, mainly among the Romans, it became very popular in Rome for its soft texture and attractiveness making the Romans sees the route mainly as a Silk Route. Although this fact, the name â€Å"Silk Road† originated in the nineteenth century, coined by the German scholar, von Richthofen. 3- Routes The intercontinental Silk Road had two different overland routes bypassing the Taklimakan Desert and Lop Nur. The northern route started at Chang’an (now called Xi’an), the capital of the ancient Chinese Kingdom, which, in the Later Han, was moved further east to Luoyang. The route was defined about the 1st century BCE as Han Wudi put an end to harassment by nomadic tribes The southern route was mainly a single route running from China, through the Karakoram, where it persists to modern times as the international paved road connecting Pakistan and China as the Karakoram Highway. It then set off westwards, but with southward spurs enabling the journey to be completed by sea from various points. Crossing the high mountains, it passed through northern Pakistan, over the Hindu Kush mountains, and into Afghanistan, rejoining the northern route near Merv. From there, it followed a nearly straight line west through mountainous northern Iran, Mesopotamia and the northern tip of the Syrian Desert to the Levant, where Mediterranean trading ships plied regular routes to Italy, while land routes went either north through Anatolia or south to North Africa. Another branch road traveled from Herat through Susa to Charax Spasinu at the head of the Persian Gulf and across to Petra and on to Alexandria and other eastern Mediterranean ports from where ships carried the cargoes to Rome. The Silk Road in the 1st century Source: 4- Mongol Age In central Asia, Islam expanded from the 7th century onward, bringing a stop to Chinese westward expansion at the Battle of Talas in 751. Further expansion of the Islamic Turks in Central Asia from the 10th century finished disrupting trade in that part of the world. For a long time during the Middle Ages, the Islamic Caliphate often had a monopoly over much of the trade conducted across the route. Under the command of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire rapidly proceeded to conquer a huge region of Asia, the Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent from around 1207 to 1360 helped to bring political and stability and re-establish the Silk Road. The partial unification of so many states under the Mongol Empire allowed a significant interaction between cultures of different regions. The trading started to happen again and the route became important as path for communication between different parts of the Empire once more. The Mongols, in general, were more open to ideas, more sympathetic to different religions and nationalities promoting the trading. Around 1288, the Venetian explorer Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China, he was not the first, however, the most well known and best documented visitor. In his tales, The Travels of Marco Polo, he describes the way of life in the cities and small kingdoms through which his party passed, with particular interest on the trade and marriage customs, opening the western eyes to some of the customs of the Far East. 5- The Peak, Decline and the Sea Route In seventh century, the Silk Route had its height of importance at this time during the Tang dynasty China was a living a relative stability after the divisions of the earlier dynasties since the Han. The art and civilization of the Silk Road achieved its highest poin in the Tang Dynasty. Changan, as the starting point of the route, as well as the capital of the dynasty, developed into one of the largest and most cosmopolitan cities of the time. By 742 A.D its population reached almost two million people and in 754 A.D it had around five thousand foreigners living in the city. During the Mongol Empire as mentioned before, the route established a new good period but despite the presence of the Mongols, the route never reached the heights that it did in the Tang dynasty. Furthermore, with the disintegration of the Mongol empire, that was fairly short-lived, the barriers rose again on the land route between East and West. After the Mongol Empire, the control of the Silk Road became economically and culturally separated. The demise of the Silk Road developed the Silk Route by sea at that time it was becoming easier and safer to transport goods by water than overland (Later however, the sea route suffered a lot of problems like bad weather and pirates). Beside this the sea route passed by promising new markets in Southern Asia at that time. The commerce with China and Asia at that time was very profitable and this situation is significantly important in explaining several factors about the present economy. It was the main driving factor for the Portuguese, and later Europeans, explorations of the Indian Ocean, including the sea of China. 6- Nowadays The last link along the Silk Road was completed in 1990, when the railway connecting Lanzhou to Urumchi was extended to the border with Kazakhstan, providing an important route to the new republics and beyond. Beside this the trade route itself is also being reopened, trading between the peoples of Xinjiang and Russia has developed quickly. The new republics in Central Asia have been contributing much of the heavy industry of the region. Trade with China has also utilized the route it was encouraged by the socialist market economy and its benefits to the market. 7- Conclusion The Silk Road played a key role in the development of the ancient economy in Asia, especially in China, In China it was the main responsible to significantly increase the number of foreign merchants present in China under the Han Dynasty and exposing the Chinese and visitors to their country to different cultures and religions. Buddhism spread from India to China because of trade along the Silk Route. This route was very important in foreign trade, during all history of civilization in the last 1200 years, placing China and India, and all East Asia, in a major role for contact with the western world in a time when this region was isolated by deserts and oceans. During the Mongol Empire, based on the Mongol’s idea of liberty about different religions and cultures, once more, the route had a very important role in the foreign trade and culture exchange between Asia countries and some countries of Europe and Africa as well. Later, the great population and the varieties of products attracted the European interest (economic center of the world at that time), by sea several expeditions in order to explore the commerce in that region change the course of the world, affecting the Americas and Africa as well Asia, being decisive in the current political, economic and social aspects of several countries in these continents.